Crime Prevention by Police -Impact and Implications
The role of police in India is the maintenance of Law and Order and the prevention and detectionof crime. In earlier times, the charter of police duties was confined only to the prevention of crimeagainst person and property and punishment to the offenders but with the growth of society fresh manifestations of crime both white collar as well as overtly violent forms have emerged as fresh challenges to police. Police is one of the vital law enforcing agency. Developmental and welfare activities can be undertaken successfully only if the foundations of law and order are well laid andwell looked after. Police work is valuable like any other developmental work and thus progress ispossible if peace and tranquility is there. The law and order situation immensely affect the functioning and structure of administration besides having larger social and political overtones. This paper focuses to identify the application of ICT tools by the police and its impact in the investigation.
Keywords:Information; Technology; Efficiency; Patrol; Beat
With the advancement of the technology, the investigational sciences have also developed over the years. As the society has evolved into a complex structure, the nature of crime has also turned out to be complex. It is a stringent job for the police to catch the smart culprits in today’s smart digital era. Therefore the police have being implementing modern investigating instruments to assist them in their chore of detecting and preventing crimes. These state of the art machines are sometime embedded with AI (Artificial Intelligence). The authentication is based on one or more elements such as the physical object that has identity, something you know regarding the accessibility, measuring or assessing a person - specific physical characteristics. The tools that assist in maximizing the evidentiary values such as acquisition, processing and the result As the technology and the world is modernizing and as the time passes, the criminal activities are also increasing and as well as the advancement in investigative techniques which help in accurate investigation of the crimes.
The Indian Police are still finding it tough to revamp its rigidity and to admit the modifications of the techniques as they are not given free hand during their vocational obligation as they are bound to use the methods recommended by their seniors or the Investigative Officer’s (IO’s). Thus the traditional investigative techniques that the police utilize still today are Interrogation, Neigh- borhood Canvassing, Witnesses – Seeking out, Perpetrators – attempting to identify, Person to Canvass( Neighbors, Mail carrier, Delivery Person, Utility meter reader, Telephone Company Workers, Paperboys, Others- who provide information), Note taking (Arrival, Departure, names & assignment of assisting personnel’s, Directions given to technicians for processing, Records of com- plainant, witness, suspect. (Criminal Investigation manual). This research will be conducted to study the uses and application of modern investigation techniques in Police Commissionerate of Belagavi City which will provide us the information to know the modern investigative techniques which are used for crime detection or crime solving.
To get the best out of technology, Indian Police must Ditch the silos By Hanif Qureshi (IGP, Law & Order) Govt. of Haryana (Jan- uary, 09/2020) In this Blog the author states that the technology and gadgets placed before the police force of majority of rural background with grossly inadequate schooling and technology exposure is the major concern and over the years, adoption of tech- nology by Indian Police has increased but concerns over the lack of integration of systems between districts and states and also not having the national data base of criminals and gangs. Neither posts of Chief Technology officer, nor were the efforts of systematic change management available at any police organization was quoted by the author.
Policing in India: Technology and Crime Prevention, By Razdha Praveen (SSHJ 2017,2) In this paper the author portrays the Problems of Indian Policing with prospects of crime prevention, electronic Identification, Electronic Transportation, Human resource manage- ment, Police – Public Interface, Real – Time Information Access, intelligent sources, Centralized information Storehouse, Crime Map- ping, Geographic Profiling, Crime intelligence system, Computer aided drafting and computer-assisted training, Comp-stat and stated that the idea is to merge the technology with the man power and adopt strategies to prevent and control crime Generators.
By the Govt. of India, Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir in a written reply to question in the Rajya Sabha States have been sensitized for encouraging use of technology from time to time. This has also been all the way through issu- ance of guiding principles, convening of meeting and various communications through to the States. While approving Sates Action Plans beneath MPF scheme, the High Powered Committee, which commends these Plans, also conduct States regarding improved technologies and apparatus which States can obtain. The amount allocate and on the loose for the above idea in the current year financial statements.
Modernisation of Police Forces (approved for continuance in the name of “Assistance to States for Modernization of Police”) was billed 769.00 Crore’s, Crime and Criminals Tracking Networking Systems was allocated 31.00 Crore’s. Emergency Response Sup- port System was allocated 84.40 Crore’s.
1) To study the availability of modern instruments in Belagavi City Commissionerate.
2) To study modern investigative techniques used by Police of Belagavi City.
3) To study the training given to police officer for the use of technology.
The nature of this research is exploratory. Thus it is conducted for a problem which is not being studied, intended to establish prior- ities, develop operations definitions and improve the final research design. This helps to understand the design of the research in an enhanced layout. In this research it would help in exploring the application and training required to improve the police operations.
Universe of the study: Universe is the area in which the researcher will collect samples. As per the provisional 2011 India census the population of Belagavi city was 4.88 lakhs. The preparedness of the police officials to investigate and reduce the crime rate would depend over their modernization and efficiency so the universe of this research is the stationed Police officials of Belagavi City Commissionerate as the universe is the primary and familiar city to the researcher.
Sample Type: This research will use simple random sampling as the Belagavi City Commissionerate has 12 police stations in city inclusive of 2 traffic police stations and thus this will be considered as a population. The sample would be collected from the officials above the rank of the ASI (Assistant Sub Inspector).
Sample size: In this study the samples will be collected as per the convenience and availability of the police officials in the station. The samples size for this research would be 50 samples. As mentioned that Belagavi is having 12 police stations within the city inclusive of 2 traffic police station divided into 2 zones (Belagavi North and Belagavi South) and thus to satisfy the objectives.
Tools of data collected: The Questionnaire is used as a tool for the collection of data, with either interview method or through the help of Microsoft forms wherein closed ended questions and few open ended questions.
1. The sample is to be collected from the officials, above the rank of ASI.
2. The research is limited to the officials of Belagavi City Commissionerate.
The sample from 45 respondents was collected and analysed. The major findings of the study are:
1. The training provided to the officers is for a very short period and only once or twice which needs to be given importance to update from time to time.
2. It was found that 90 % of the respondents were using only the old traditional methods for investigation.
3. 98% of the respondents said that the use of new modern techniques would help them to solve the cases faster , easier and with accurac
1. Frequency of training programmes have to be increased which will help them to update with the latest technology.
2. GPS tracking is rarely been used in the investigations, this can be given emphasis.
3. Practical training to the Officers and constables has to be inculcated in their training programmes mainly on the procedure of investigation.
4. Use of Drone camera will be of great importance therefore training and use of the instruments needs to be implemented.
5. Aadhaar can be linked to fingerprint data base for fast tracking of the suspects and criminals.
6. Cyber crimes are on an increasing trend therefore it is the need of the hour to provide training in investigation of these type of trainings.
7. The trainings provided will not only improve their skills but will also boast their morality and refresh the officers in their work.
8. Women police stations need to be made more effective ( From practical point of view) Establishment of separate Juvenile Police Stations.
The Indian Police have been adopting traditional methods that have had a great claw over the crimes and maintaining of law & order since very long and thus this practice is still in use by the police and thus the Indian police have made several attempts to modernize themselves to buckle up their pace and with the modern world and technological advancements in criminal sciences used to detect and prevent the crime in an technological manner to attain their space in the modern world. The world today uses modern gadgets, tools, techniques, such that they are bounded with it, thus the modern methods are also similarly vulnerable to an extent that would harm ones reputation or can destroy a person or an organization. The thefts that were used to be done in human are being done virtually over the internet such that these do not possess any tracks to an ordinary user rather than a professional or an expert. The people are well acquainted with the previous old technique used by the police and they have been passing through the loop holes left by the police. The methods to overcome these loop holes are to get introduced with the new forensic tools and modern psychological techniques.
In the present scenario, India has been using the tools such as the Narco-analysis / Truth Serum Test, Polygraph or Lie Detector test, Brain mapping / p300, DNA profiling, Fingerprinting, Ballistic Finger printing, GPS (Global Positioning System) Tracking System, Wireless and Detention system, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), Brain Electro Oscillation System (BEOS) etc. thus they are made limited for the Premium Law enforcement agencies such as Central Bu- reau of Investigation (CBI), Intelligence Bureau (IB), National Investigation Agency (NIA) , Anti Terrorist Squad (ATS), Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) and the State Crime Investigation Department’s (State CID’s), Special Investigation Teams (SITs), Special Task Forces (STF), National Security Guards (NSG) The above mentioned tools and techniques are also used for the cases of high profiled members of the society or the VVIP’s and are also used for the bandobast of the Political events, Rallies, National and International meets, social and Cultural Gatherings and etc.
The other tools such as encryption tool, Passphrase protection, Vehicle Black Box, Layered Voice Analysis, Suspect Detection Sys- tem etc are the tools such that their information could not being gathered due the COVID-19 scenario and hence that there is no documented evidence that they would probably be used by the police. But still there would be a possibility that the police might be using these under rarest conditions and not considering it to the other premium agencies as well as other establishments.
The modern techniques are usually made limited access towards the general police and in some case the fingerprint, DNA profiling, Ballistic fingerprinting is being used for the serious cognizable cases by the police for fair trials and the production of substantial evi- dence at the court level and thus to prove the guilt of the accused based on such evidence. As it is said to be the basic substantiation that is been acquired from the accused or collected from the scene of crime. In most of the cases the Investigating Officer (IO) fails, as the reports are being delayed on the basis of commute and over the number of evidences to be examined are in a queue and thus there are the chances of the other evidences to be tampered or the actual culprit being alert or there are chance of him being run away.
The tools such as metal detectors, CCTV cameras, scanners are all used by the police for Vigilance and Surveillance purposes by all the area of the police as its mandatory in all arena and for pre occurrence of Act or even for post investigation of the cases such as they are called as investigating the foot prints to know the members involved or to identify the members of the collective liability. As we are already aware of the places where the CCTV, Scanners and Metal detectors are usually seen in public places, such as Air Ports, Bus Stands, Railway Stations, Malls, Stores, Public events, Fests, etc. as they are tend to act as deterrence during the event or the place. It can be also useful in cases of investigations and to know the culprit of the particular act. These equipments helps in vigilance and also helps detect the suspected persons from entering and alerts if found any dangerous weapons or instruments that being carried.
Coming towards the traffic the Belagavi police uses Wheel clamp tyre lock for the wrong parking, Tapes in terms of accidents or Man holes , Batons for the purpose of diversions, Speed radar guns mounted over the vehicles for the control of speed and to fine the commuters who exceed the speed limits, Breath analyzers to check the meter the consumption of alcohol or other substances, wireless printers for the printing of the tickets (Chalans), Traffic Flashers at the busy junctions or blind turns and for visibility of the dividers, Road studs for maintain the lane, Convex mirrors for the blind turns, Road Bollard on the foot paths for the non commuta- tion of two wheeler vehicles and bicycles, Flap Barriers are being used by the police at the check posts or diversions for the checking or for the various purposes of the security and assurance. Fluorescent Jackets are being provided to reflect and for the safety of the officer, Warning Bollards are being provided at the places of constructions and at the places of narrow roads and accident zones, Under Vehicle trolley Mirrors are being used at the places of VVIP Meetings and Political Gatherings are such modern equipments that are being already available with the Belagavi police and in use as one can witness the same used by the Belagavi police during the peak times or passing through the city limits. They also play an important role such as the modern equipments are the cause of deterrence in the public and thus they follow the rules that are made for the safe movement of the traffic and also from causing inconvenience to the other commuting travelers.
The traffic Instruments such as Boom Barriers, Tyre killers are the tools such that their information could not being gathered due the COVID-19 scenario and hence that there would be a possibility that the police might be using these under rarest conditions.
Thus every instrument has its limitations to its extent and thus performs a role in solving a task assigned during the need of the hour with its alienations such that they are all useful in every aspect of investigation and scenarios of investigation. And thus the delay in every aspect would result in injustice to the case and the suspect and also that would provide as serious time gap for the real culprit to elope from the city of which the crime has occurred and also provide time for the evidences to be tampered or being injustice to the suspect and the case. The failure of non- availability would result in either the evidences to be tampered or to not maintain the authenticity standards of the investigation as the court believes in the documentation either certified by an expert or the profession- als from the specific fields. Thus the need of the experts is also prevalent in this scenario and thus the need of the experts is to be procured and also would be the training organizations for the police are required. Thus the police need to be acquainted with the instruments at the district level for the fair investigations rather than the State Level or National level that would be time consuming and impartial towards the norms of the investigation.