Figure 1: (a) Axial CT scan of a 21-year-old patient with JNA stage IIc. The lesion occupies the nasopharynx and penetrated the right pterygopalatine fossa (open arrows) through an enlarged sphenopalatine foramen (b) Coronal T1-weighted MRI scan of the same patient. The enhancing lesion invades into the right infratemporal fossa

Figure 2: Angiography pre-embolisation (on the right): Shows tumour blush from the sphenopalatine artery via the internal maxillary artery and postembolisation (on the left) images of the right external carotid artery: shows no visible tumour blush

Limited to the nose and/or nasopharynx
Same as IA but with extension into one or more paranasal sinuses
Minimal extension through the sphenopalatine foramen, into and including a minimal part of the Medial-most part of the pterygomaxillary fossa
Full occupation of the pterygomaxillary fossa, displacing the the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum forward. Lateral and/or anterior displacement of branches of the maxillary artery. Superior extension may occur, eroding orbital bones
Extension through the pterygomaxillary fossa into the cheek and temporal fossa or posterior to pterygoid plates
Erosion of skull base-minimal iwntracranial extension
Erosion of skull base-extensive intracranial extension with or without cavernous sinus
Table 1: Staging of JNA according to Radkowski, et al.[<a class="link" href="javascript:open('ref7');" >7</a>]