Figure 1: Patient’s pH, serum lactate and bicarbonate levels over time
This shows the patient’s severely depressed pH over time (blue line) and the markedly elevated lactate level (red line over the same time period, correlated to the serum bicarbonate (green line)

Figure 2: Relationship between initial venous lactate level and fitted 28-day mortality, using a fractional polynomial regression

This shows the relationship of increasing levels of lactate and increasing 28 day mortality. Mortality rates are quite significant and more pronounced if systemic shock is present, Mikkelsen, et al. [14]

Figure 3: Odds ratio for metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) mortality by serum lactate level
In this systematic review, serum lactate levels above 15-20 mmol/L were associated with a sharp rise in mortality. Solid lines represent adjusted odds ratios based on restricted quadratic splines for the serum lactate level, with knots at the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles. The shaded green region represents upper and lower 95% CIs. The reference value was set at 10th percentile. The bars represent a histogram of serum distribution among enrolled cases (the extreme tails of the histogram were truncated), Yeh, et al. [21]