Figure 1: In-cylinder carbonaceous deposits

Figure 2: Fuel pool contamination

Figure 3: Pool combustion equipment

Figure 4: Direct photographs of Benzene pool flame

Figure 5: Heating unit, and normal and heated flames

Figure 6: Temperature distributions along the center

Figure 7: Deposit PM Measurement method in the fuel pool

Figure 8: Fuel heating by a ring heater and its resulting deposits measurement

Figure 9: Relation between fuel and exhaust PM [40, modified]

Figure 10: Relation between fuel and deposit

Figure 11: Effect of fuel consumption rate on flame length and exhaust PM

Figure 12: Effect off fuel consumption rate on deposition rate

Figure 13: Relative position between flame sheet and temperature measurement line

Figure 14: In-flame temperature distribution near fuel surface (r = 5 mm)

Figure 15: Temperature gradient near fuel surface (r = 5 mm)

Table 1: Appearances of fuel pool bottom after fuel heating and pool combustion