Figure 1: Light microscopic findings of lithium associated nephropathy. A: Low magnification reveals extensive tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (H&E stain, 20X10). B: Under high magnification (H&E stain, 40X 10), atrophic tubules contain protein casts. C and D: Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in two different glomeruli, 1 of which is associated with hyaline materials (C, trichrome stain 40X10), another has foam cells and adhesion to Bowman’s capsule (D: H&E stain, 40X10). E and F: Multiple cysts in renal parenchyma. Cysts are seen in renal cortex and medulla in E (H&E stain, 40X10). The lining of cysts is formed by proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells in F (H&E stain, 40X10)